This view is supported by Bryan (2011:4), who raises the „thorny” question of whether developmental education has been abandoned or deprived of its original radical foundations. Bryan points to the tension between the radicalism of developmental education and „the more dominant instrumentalist approach to schooling.” We affirm that partnerships are experiencing similar tensions. Therefore, it is necessary to question the notions of partnership in development cooperation and development education in order to clarify the role, purpose and philosophical foundations of such initiatives. Without critical engagement, development education initiatives such as partnership and linkage programs, including student internships in a changing context, risk perpetuating dependency and inequality, reinforcing rather than challenging negative stereotypes and unequal power relations (Disney, 2009; Martin, 2005; O`Keefe, 2006). „Facilitating the development of cooperative partnerships within and between higher education and research institutions in Ireland and Irish-assisted countries” (Irish Aid, 2007). This article raised a number of preliminary issues related to partnerships in higher education and teacher education, particularly in terms of power, inclusion of the southern perspective, reciprocity and reciprocity, and perceived weaknesses. Developmental education in terms of process, action component and conceptual framework has much to offer the partnership-building process. Development educators have recognized moderation and intercultural competences to deal with the negotiation of power relations. To move beyond the „rhetoric of partnership” (Crawford, 2003), it is imperative that partners openly address the issue of power in terms of ownership, decision-making, financing, planning and evaluation. Partnership is a term that evokes a lot of sensitivity with its implicit connotations of sharing and trust. Although aid and charity may refer to a more unequal helping relationship, the term „partnership” suggests equality, respect, reciprocity, and personal responsibility (Gutierrez, 2008).
Nevertheless, some partnerships can be abusive and unequal in practice, and the term continues to mean different things to different people, sectors and institutions. · strengthening ownership of development by developing countries; Another partnership for teacher education is the Zambian Irish Teacher Education Programme (ZITEP), funded by Irish Aid and the Department of Education and Skills (Ireland), which aims to improve the quality of teacher education in Zambia. Five teacher training colleges in Ireland are partnering with two teacher training colleges in Zambia on a comprehensive mentoring and support programme in key areas of teacher education. A virtual intranet connected to the seven universities was developed as a key feature of the partnership, allowing more than 110 lecturers to collaborate online between the two countries. This allows speakers to collaborate, interact and exchange ideas, co-develop resources, and discuss topics relevant to the teaching of their topics. The intranet site also facilitates the joint management of the partnership and provides useful information on classroom management, assessment practices and classroom practice. The Zambia-Ireland initiative was developed to make a significant contribution to the provision and quality of education in Zambia. The main objective of the CGDE and ZITEP is to improve teacher training in Lesotho, Uganda and Zambia. „. A dynamic collaborative process between educational institutions that brings reciprocal, but not necessarily symmetrical, benefits to the parties involved in the partnership. The partners share ownership of the projects. Their relationship is based on respect, trust, transparency and reciprocity.
They understand each other`s cultural and work environment. Decisions are taken jointly after genuine negotiations between the partners. Each partner is open and clear about what they bring to the partnership and what their expectations are for them. Successful partnerships tend to change and evolve over time” (Wanni et al., 2010:18). How companies structure these teams depends on concrete factors – for example, the number and complexity of partnerships – as well as intangible assets such as management support for alliances and joint ventures and the experience and skills of the people who would make up Allianz`s management team. .